At the lead point, power should be increased to the appropriate level flight cruise setting so the desired airspeed will be attained at the desired altitude. Since the airplane will continue turning as long as there is any bank, the rollout must be started before reaching the desired heading. on the control yoke with the fingers. The primary rule of attitude flying is: ATTITUDE + POWER = PERFORMANCE. results produced in relation to the pilot. Failure to adequately clear the area before beginning the turn. DESCENT AT MINIMUM SAFE AIRSPEED --A minimum safe airspeed descent is a nose-high, power assisted descent condition principally used for clearing obstacles during a landing approach to a short runway. Failure to initiate a climbing turn properly with use of rudder and elevators, resulting in little turn, but rather a climb with one wing low. In all constant altitude, constant airspeed turns, it is necessary to increase the angle of attack of the wing when rolling into the turn by applying up elevator. Attempting to execute the turn solely by instrument reference. With too little lead, there will be a tendency to descend below the selected altitude. When the airstream is slow, the controls move easily, but must be deflected a greater distance. Thus, the total lift must be increased to compensate for this loss. Chapter 6, At the same time, a constant heading should be held with the wings level if a straight climb is being performed, or a constant angle of bank and rate of turn if a climbing turn is being performed. As previously stated, control surfaces move in the airstream and meet resistance proportional to the speed of the airstream. beginning pilot from thinking in terms of "up" or GLIDES --A glide is a basic maneuver in which the airplane loses altitude in a controlled descent with little or no engine power; forward motion is maintained by gravity pulling the airplane along an inclined path and the descent rate is controlled by the pilot balancing the forces of gravity and lift. After the bank has been established in a medium banked turn, all pressure applied to the aileron may be relaxed. relation to the pilot. discounting any difficulties in visualizing the During the early practice of climbs and climbing turns, this may make coordination of the controls seem awkward (left climbing turn holding right rudder), but after a little practice this correction for propeller effects will become instinctive. Attempting to exceed the airplane’s climb capability. With this in mind, the pilot should be cautioned Consequently, the pilot must be If you have trouble differentiating rolls from spins, remember “roll” as one of the three axes of flight—this is the plane along which the aircraft “rocks” back and forth across the length of its wingspan, with one wing tipping up while the other drops the opposite direction. In attitude flying, airplane control is composed of four components: pitch control, bank control, power control, and trim. This often alarms the beginning pilot when it occurs close to the ground, and the pilot may respond by applying aileron pressure toward the outside of the turn to stop the bank. the surface is moved out of its neutral or streamlined The pilot must understand the effects of both power and elevator control, working together, during different conditions of flight. This will stop the bank from increasing because the aileron and rudder control surfaces will be neutral in their streamlined position. The objective of straight-and-level flight is to detect small deviations from laterally level flight as soon as they occur, necessitating only small corrections. The pilot should always be considered the center of movement of the airplane, or the reference point from which the movements of the airplane are judged and described. So shallow turns should be used to maintain an efficient rate of climb.


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