Benzene in air comes either from natural sources, such as forest fires and volcanic activity, or from human activities, such as cigarette smoking and burning of fossil fuels [2]. gasoline and benzene, which are known human Don't already have an Oxford Academic account? According to Smith et al. Based on results from a Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) survey of almost 200 samples of soft drinks and other beverages tested for benzene conducted from 2005 through May 2007, a small number of products sampled contained more than 5 parts per billion (ppb) of benzene. The reduction in the concentration of precursors (benzoic acid and ascorbic acid) has been shown to be the primary measure used in the formulation of food and efficiently reduces the levels of contaminants in the final product; replacement of the antimicrobial agent (benzoate) is always an alternative to be considered. Benzene is also used to make some types of lubricants, rubbers, dyes, detergents, drugs, and pesticides. You could not be signed in. Using the benzene concentrations in food, a quantitative dietary exposure assessment of benzene intake was conducted on a national representative sample of the Belgian population over 15 years of age. Studies of benzene in food, especially in nonalcoholic beverages, are done globally (Table 1). FDA has directly contacted those firms whose products were tested and found to contain more than 5 ppb benzene in our survey. ► Estimated benzene intakes are below the minimum risk level for oral chronic exposure. This suggests that both ascorbic acide and its degradation products may induce peroxide formation in the presence of metal ions and oxygen, generating hydroxyl radicals that attack benzoate, yielding benzene [9]. Benzene is commonly used as a solvent in many industrial, commercial and research. Ethanol is used as a gasoline blendstock, in Sodium, potassium, and calcium benzoates and ascorbic acid may occur naturally in foods or be added as food additives. Benzene can enter foods in many ways: use of contaminated raw materials and packaging materials, storage in contaminated areas, and use of contaminated water for washing or preparing the food. Chang and Ku [31] conducted a study similar to that of McNeal et al. impurities would not be expected from a typical guidances in April to reflect data submitted by In this review, we summarized the benzene formation mechanisms in food and beverages, occurrence, and mitigation measures as well as data analysis of benzene in food (mainly nonalcoholic beverages) to investigate the potential risk of benzene exposure through oral ingestion. The site is secure. The ethanol industry has put large investments Benzene formation was greatest ( μg/kg−1) in the model containing riboflavin, ascorbic acid, and Cu(II) ions in a solution buffered with sodium citrate and exposed to light. Aprea et al. As a result of these findings, many manufacturers reformulated their products to reduce or eliminate benzene formation. Sodium benzoate is best known as a food preservative, though it has several other uses. products that are produced often through Therefore, light/diet products are more vulnerable to benzene formation. Coloring agents and flavors may contain ascorbates. [30] studied pickled green olives, cucumbers, and caper berries containing ascorbic and benzoic acids under three experimental conditions to determine the chemical and sensory changes induced by these additives: (0) without additives; (1) with sodium benzoate; and (2) with sodium benzoate and ascorbic acid. Benzene can form at very low levels (ppb level) in some beverages that contain both benzoate salts and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) or erythorbic acid (a closely related substance (isomer) also known as d-ascorbic acid). We use cookies to improve the performance of our site, to analyse the traffic to our site, and to personalise your experience of the site. The following is a list of products containing benzene. There can be many steps in the process that starts with the benzene molecule and ends with a completed material or consumer product. After eight days stored in the dark, the solutions had a benzene concentration of 176 ng/g. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. FDA first became aware that benzene was present in some soft drinks in 1990. They are more vulnerable because they absorb more contaminants than adults exposed to equal concentrations. Benzene is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a Group 1 human carcinogen [3]. In 2006, the FDA conducted an evaluation(1) of the reliability of the TDS benzene results. D. W. Lachenmeier, T. Kuballa, H. Reusch, C. Sproll, M. Kersting, and U. Alexy, “Benzene in infant carrot juice: further insight into formation mechanism and risk assessment including consumption data from the DONALD study,”. Don't already have an Oxford Academic account? Few examples include resins, synthetic products such as nylon, Styrofoam and others. Some benzoates/benzoic acids are present in some fruits and may be added as preservatives, especially in acidic foods with a pH < 4.5, which is usually the case of nonalcoholic beverages [26]. (ii)Sugars may reduce benzene formation but do not inhibit it completely. This article is also available for rental through DeepDyve. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Register, Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. The major sources of benzene exposure are tobaccosmoke, automobile service stations, exhaust from motor vehicles, and industrial emissions; however, ingestion … See also Data on Benzene in Soft Drinks and Other Beverages, including product names and benzene levels. Therefore, foods susceptible to benzene formation, such as processed foods, must be studied and monitored [15]. Recently, the combination of sodium or potassium benzoate with ascorbic acid was shown to produce low levels (ng/g) of benzene in fruit-flavored soft drinks. Benzoic acid and its sodium and potassium salts are among the most common preservatives used for inhibiting microbial growth because of their cost-benefit ratios [23]. Benzene formation increased linearly with hydrogen peroxyde concentration, until the ascorbic acid concentration was exceeded. The manufacturers have reformulated products, if still manufactured, which were identified in the survey as containing greater than 5 ppb benzene. However, when the concentration of ascorbic acid exceeds that of benzoic acid, the formation of hydroxyls decreases, since benzoic and ascorbic acids compete. A solution of benzoic acid contains dissolved and undissolved molecules in equilibrium. Benzene is widely used in the United States. Benzoates control the growth of some bacteria, filamentous fungi, and yeasts, preventing product deterioration and the growth of pathogenic species [24]. Although undissolved benzoic acid is the most effective antimicrobial agent, benzoates are used more often because of their greater solubility in water. These values are below the minimum risk level for oral chronic exposure to benzene (0.5 μg kg bw d−1). While studying the mechanism of benzene formation in carrot juice for children, Lachenmeier et al. Some fuel producers have even made the switch from fuel R. M. Vinci, L. Jacxsens, J. van Loco et al., “Assessment of human exposure to benzene through foods from the Belgian market,”. Dong, and H.-L. Chen, “Investigation into benzene, trihalomethanes and formaldehyde in Chinese lager beers,”, M. Bilau, C. Matthys, C. Vinkx, and S. de Henauw, “Intake assessment for benzoates in different subgroups of the Flemish population,”. food. restrictions on sanitizer production in April. What steps are being taken to reduce or eliminate benzene in beverages? Hydrogen peroxide is further reduced, a reaction also catalyzed by those metal ions, and may generate hydroxyl radicals [27]. Furthermore, benzene levels in hundreds of samples tested by national and international government agencies and the beverage industry are consistent with those found in our survey. On the other hand, the concentration of benzene in foods with benzoates and ascorbates varied from 1 to 38 ng/g [18]. [18] for pickled vegetables. Required fields are marked *. impurities, such as benzene, to be in sanitizer Unprocessed foods such as raw meat, fish, and eggs contained much lower concentrations of benzene. Make fast and confident decisions and gauge the best time to buy or sell. X.-L. Cao, V. Casey, S. Seaman, B. Tague, and A. Becalski, “Determination of benzene in soft drinks and other beverages by isotope dilution headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry,”, P. J. Nyman, G. W. Diachenko, G. A. Perfetti, T. P. Mcneal, M. H. Hiatt, and K. M. Morehouse, “Survey results of benzene in soft drinks and other beverages by headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry,”.


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