Through reason, philosophy assimilates the mind and the universe (Russell Para.11). (a) Russell's parents died when he was a little child; John Stuart Mill was his godfather. One, in turn, should subject his/her mind to prejudices. Later in his career life, he emerged as a subtle logician, historian and social critic who stood for what he believed philosophy offered without prejudices subjected to sacrificing his logical decisions. Yet, however slight may be the hope of discovering an answer, it is part of the business of philosophy to continue the consideration of such questions, to make us aware of their importance, to examine all the approaches to them, and to keep alive that speculative interest in the universe which is apt to be killed by confining ourselves to definitely ascertainable knowledge. People inclined to the ideas of “practical men” may perhaps see philosophy as valueless. In this citizenship of the universe consists man’s true freedom, and his liberation from the thraldom of narrow hopes and fears. Perhaps another critical value of philosophy is its inability no to subdivide the world into distinctive categories such “friends and foes” (Russell Para.10). (b) He taught at Trinity College, Cambridge and was dismissed because of his pacifist activities during World War I. Are good and evil of importance to the universe or only to man? It is rather a set of “useless trifling, hair splitting distinctions and controversies on matters concerning which knowledge are possible” (Russell Para. However, he could not back down his criticisms since according to him, this was the truth, truth emanates from reason and the reason is from the mind. December 5, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/the-value-of-philosophy-by-bertrand-russell/. "The Value of Philosophy by Bertrand Russell." Again, does his evaluation of the values of philosophy serve to inculcate a way of thinking inclined to his lines of view? I believe that Russell was the greatest philosopher in the twentieth century and quite possibly the greatest philosopher of the entire Western intellectual tradition. It is the more necessary to consider this question, in view 6). Rather, he proactively involves the reader in the process of searching values of philosophy through a set of queries. Thus contemplation enlarges not only the objects of our thoughts, but also the objects of our actions and our affections: it makes us citizens of the universe, not only of one walled city at war with all the rest. Thus, to sum up our discussion of the value of philosophy: Philosophy is to be studied, not for the sake of any definite answers to its questions, since no definite answers can, as a rule, be known to be true, but rather for the sake of the questions themselves; because these questions enlarge our conception of what is possible, enrich our intellectual imagination, and diminish the dogmatic assurance which closes the mind against speculation; but above all because, through the greatness of the universe which philosophy contemplates, the mind also is rendered great, and becomes capable of that union with the universe which constitutes its highest good. Apart from its utility in showing unsuspected possibilities, philosophy has a value—perhaps its chief value— through the greatness of the objects which it contemplates, and the freedom from narrow and personal aims resulting from this contemplation. Web. IvyPanda. IvyPanda. (2019) 'The Value of Philosophy by Bertrand Russell'. Aristotle on Voluntary Action - Mahad.pdf, The Allegory of the Cave and The Matrix Ver 2.docx, The value of philosophy Bertrand Russell Weekly Paper.docx. But further, if we are not to fail in our endeavour to determine the value of philosophy, we must first free our minds from the prejudices of what are wrongly called “practical” men. 2019. But it cannot be maintained that philosophy has had any very great measure of success in its attempts to provide definite answers to its questions. December 5, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/the-value-of-philosophy-by-bertrand-russell/. IvyPanda. Bertrand Russell, Problems of Philosophy CHAPTER XV THE VALUE OF PHILOSOPHY HAVING now come to the end of our brief and very incomplete review of the problems of philosophy, it will be well to consider, in conclusion, what is the value of philosophy and why it ought to be studied. Philosophic contemplation does not, in its widest survey, divide the universe into two hostile camps—friends and foes, helpful and hostile, good and bad—it views the whole impartially. Such a prerequisite is necessary since unveiling the truth encompasses subjecting any previously held “knowledge” and biasness to doubt, so that through reason all that is susceptible to doubt may be eliminated and remain with only that is beyond any reasonable doubt (Russell Para.8). Russell challenges the opinion by some philosophers that “philosophy could establish the truth of certain answers to such fundamental questions” (Russell Para.6). Somewhat important aspect of philosophy that is intriguing is the argument that deals with seeking knowledge through holding uncertainties perspectives of all beliefs on things that may arguably claim to exist by so referred “practical man”. Russell’s argument is biased and partially true, reject unknown possibilities and seek only definite answers become obvious; as they rouse no, Although philosophy is to be studied, not for the sake of any definite conclusion but, o advance one’s conception of what is possible, further advance one’s imagination, and, diminish the opinionated assurance which prisons the free mind against speculation. Hence, once more, the value of philosophy must not depend upon any supposed body of definitely ascertainable knowledge to be acquired by those who study it. Bertrand Russell – On the Value of Philosophy, John Locke – On the Foundation of Knowledge, George Berkeley – On Materialism and Idealism, Immanuel Kant – On the Sources of Knowledge, Bertrand Russell – On Truth and Falsehood, Aristotle - On Language and the Way Truth Works, Gottfried Wilhelm Liebniz – On Substances, St. Anselm – On the Ontological Proof of God's Existence, St. Thomas Aquinas – On the Five Ways to Prove God's Existence, Blaise Pascal – On the Wager for God's Existence, David Hume– On the Irrationality of Believing in Miracles, Søren Kierkegaard – On Encountering Faith, William Paley – On The Teleological Argument, David Hume – On the Foundations of Morals, Jeremy Bentham - On the Principle of Utility, Bertrand Russell – On Anti-Suffragist Arguments, Karl Marx & Frederick Engels – On Communism, Mary Wollstonecraft – On the Rights of Women, John Locke – On Property and the Formation of Societies, John Stuart Mill – On The Equality of Women, Plato – On the Value of Art and Imitation.

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