Groundwater contamination with excessive nitrogen often is a problem that damages both the environment & our health, and also is very inefficient. Table 8.3 gives an overview of the performance features and criteria for laying hens, fattening poultry and parental stock currently used in poultry breeding. It is probable that even if disease tolerance becomes successfully implemented in major economic crops such as cereals, potatoes, or soybeans, these traits will themselves require protection through the integrated approach of using chemical fungicides in programs to manage the diseases and avoid the tolerance breaking down. Both GAPs and the National Organic Program recommend chemical or heat (thermophilic) treatment of raw materials such as chicken litter and manure, coupled with wait periods between application and harvest of crops, to minimize microbial survival and contamination (FDA, 1998; National Organic Program, 2000). However, our meta-analysis does not point toward clear relationships between organic farming and soil biodiversity in studies conducted to date. My name is Naomi and I’m pleased to meet you here! Agricultural practices have been found to contribute to non-point source water pollutants that include salts, fertilizers (nitrates and phosphorus, especially), pesticides, and herbicides. The use of nutrient inputs other than those fixed from legumes and reincorporated in crop residues are particularly important on stockless rotations on lighter soils. Table IV. According to this rule, if raw manure or other raw biological materials comes in contact with the edible potion of a crop, then soil amendment application must occur 120 days before harvesting can begin. That, per se, is unsustainable. Plant stands were more uniform over a range of improved drainage levels and maize grain yields were always highest with the bed or ridge system. Most organic poultry production is currently based on the same breeding stock as conventional farming and the principal problems (see above) are the same. In contrast, a recent meta-analysis of pesticide impacts on bacterial communities demonstrates that much work in this field remains to be conducted to establish a thorough understanding of how these chemicals affect soil communities (Imfeld and Vuilleumier, 2012). On the contrary, CFS is considered to pose more severe changes in soil environment due to intensive and difficult to control input of synthetic fertilizers (Gomiero et al., 2011; Sebastian et al., 2014; Pershina et al., 2015; Lupatini et al., 2017), and pesticides application for pathogens control (Kremen and Miles, 2012). Part 1 explored the theme of water, part 2 focused on soil fertility, part 3 investigated biodiversity under organic & conventional farming systems while part 4 controversially discussed climate protection through conventional vs. organic farming. Mulching helped conserve soil water during a season with long periods without rain at both experimental sites. The use of conventional farming practices based on extensive tillage, especially when combined with removal or in situ burning of crop residues, has accelerated erosion while the soil resource base has been steadily degraded (Montgomery, 2007). And organic farms are even more efficient when you look at it from a long-term perspective. Hence, both productivity and nutrient use efficiency must be enhanced. We did not detect differences in soil biodiversity between organic and conventional farming practices, despite fairly widespread expectations that organic management will be effective at addressing negative impacts of agricultural intensification, including biodiversity losses (e.g., Reganold and Wachter, 2016). They are integral to the production of crops in many countries of the world, resulting in increased yields and farmer income. Converting land to desert (desertification)can be caused by over…

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