Alkanes are used in a number of industrial applications and are found in natural gas and petroleum. Below, we see that each edge of the structure represents a carbon atom. For example, a methyl group (CH3) is a fragment of a methane molecule (CH4). An alkyl group is a piece of a molecule with the general formula (CH3)n, where n is any integer. In linear alkanes, the carbon atoms are joined in a snake-like structure. C 5 → Pent Pentane C 5 H 12. Many substances are involved in the production of fuel, and one of the raw materials needed to make fuel is a type of chemical compounds known as an alkane. The chemical structure of alkanes has three types: linear, branched, and cyclic. Related Questions. Alkenes are organic compounds that are generally only comprised of hydrogen and carbon atoms. How Do I Use Study.com's Assign Lesson Feature? If we plug these values into the general chemical formula for alkanes, it shows that C10H18 follows the general chemical formula for alkanes. 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Linear alkanes have the carbons bonded together in a chain-like structure, similar to a snake. There are 5 carbon atoms, so n = 5, and there are two rings, so g = 2. Alkanes are generally less reactive than alkenes and alkynes because they lack the more reactive double and triple bonds. Pentane is a linear straight chain alkane and has five carbon (C) atoms, so n = 5. Alkenes have a general formula of CnH2n, where "n" may equal any number larger than one. hydrocarbonA compound consisting only of carbon and hydrogen atoms. Due to the general structure of alkenes, they always have twice as many hydrogens as carbons. Anyone can earn Taking a look at ethane and pentane, these alkanes are referred to as saturated because they only contain single bonds, and because of that, each carbon atom is saturated with hydrogen atoms. imaginable degree, area of CC BY-SA 3.0. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alkane credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. The general formula of alkane is C n H 2n+2, where n = number of hydrogen. The solid compounds are typically waxy in texture. This table shows some examples of linear alkanes. For example, a methyl group (CH 3) is a fragment of a methane molecule (CH 4). If you are on a personal connection, like at home, you can run an anti-virus scan on your device to make sure it is not infected with malware. succeed. Fuel is very important to us. The number of carbon atoms is used to define the size of the alkane (e.g., C2-alkane). Boundless vets and curates high-quality, openly licensed content from around the Internet. For carbon chains with length of 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 atoms, the prefixes are “hex-,” “hept-,” “oct-,” “non-,” and “dec-,” respectively. Wiktionary However, they do participate in reactions with oxygen (combustion) and halogens. Your IP: 64.111.104.133 Try refreshing the page, or contact customer support. The smaller members of the alkane family are gases, while the larger compounds are liquid and solid compounds. Visit the College Chemistry: Help and Review page to learn more. Cyclic alkanes consist of hydrogen and carbon atoms singly bonded to each other, where carbon atoms bond together to form a ring. Alkanes are, therefore, referred to as saturated hydrocarbons. So accordingly the number of hydrogen atoms is 2n+2. | {{course.flashcardSetCount}} As these bonds are all single bonds, there is free rotation around all connections. Another way to prevent getting this page in the future is to use Privacy Pass. How many hydrogen atoms would you expect to find in a saturated hydrocarbon with 7 carbon atoms? Let's take a look at decane, for example. Log in here for access. They are commonly found in fuel sources, like natural gas and petroleum. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/saturated%20hydrocarbon, http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/hydrocarbon, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Octane-in-full.png, https://www.boundless.com/chemistry/textbooks/boundless-chemistry-textbook/. This is in contrast to alkenes and alkynes, which contain double and triple bonds and are known as unsaturated hydrocarbons. Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community, Recognize the chemical formula for alkanes. {{courseNav.course.topics.length}} chapters | In cyclic alkanes, the carbon backbone is linked so as to form a loop. Wikimedia%20Commons There are three types of alkanes: linear straight chain alkanes, branched alkanes, and cyclic alkanes. You can test out of the For the higher molecular weight compounds, the four bonds formed by carbon allow for a number of variations on the carbon skeleton. 4) Out of the two alkyl groups attached to the two sides of the -O-, the group which is bigger or larger than the other is named as hydrocarbon. just create an account. - Definition, Uses, Effects & Formula, Amine: Definition, Structure, Reactions & Formula, Comparing Inorganic & Organic Compounds: Explanation & Practice, UExcel Anatomy & Physiology: Study Guide & Test Prep, Praxis Middle School Science (5440): Practice & Study Guide, MTTC Chemistry (018): Practice & Study Guide, TExMaT Master Science Teacher 4-8 (091): Study Guide & Test Prep, Human Anatomy & Physiology: Help and Review, Holt Physical Science: Online Textbook Help, Praxis Chemistry (5245): Practice & Study Guide. E.g. Not sure what college you want to attend yet? These multiple forms, which share the same molecular formula, are known as isomers. Study.com has thousands of articles about every Cyclobutane can be drawn two ways: on the left, we see that it shows all the carbon and hydrogen atoms, and on the right, cyclobutane can be drawn as a square, where the hydrogen atoms are not shown, and each edge of the square represents carbon atoms. To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page. © copyright 2003-2020 Study.com. Alkanes have a number of industrial applications beyond fuels, including uses in cosmetics and plastics. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal Alkanes are named with the suffix “-ane” following the hydrocarbon prefixes. Cyclic and branched alkanes will be discussed in greater detail in subsequent sections. saturated hydrocarbonA compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon, composed entirely of single bonds. It can be drawn with all the carbon and hydrogen atoms being shown, or it can be drawn as a chain (the hydrogen atoms are not shown), where each edge represents a carbon atom. lessons in math, English, science, history, and more. and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.

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